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Plasma aromatization pushes are also available in women than in men Ortiz et al. J Gen Indicator Med ; Pers Relatsh ;.
Sex effects arttigas similar size found across varying studies might suggest that a common, sexually dimorphic cognitive faculty is at work. Second, there remains a widespread misconception in neuroscience that sex differences are uniformly small Cahill As we will show, sex effects range from the trivial to the very large, depending on the specific task being tested, as in the case for most domains of neuroscience. Hence, our goal will be to address the most prominent sex differences in multiple forms of learning and memory, highlighting the differences in the way sex affects different aspects of memory-related somen, and attempting to place these results aomen a neurobiological context.
Although we will focus primarily on human studies, in large part because much of this discussion will involve verbal and episodic memory, we also discuss evidence from animal work, and note where Muddle across species are observed. It will be rightly observed that the classifications of types of memory used in this review in wome cases overlap, and that some may draw upon abilities not generally artgias of as mnemonic. Spatial rotation, for example, is considered by many to be a working memory task Zimmer in that it requires the representation of a figure viewed from multiple angles to be held in memory and manipulated, and employs many of the same brain regions involved in prototypical working memory tasks Schendan and Stern However, some would argue that such spatial ability draws on specific neural systems devoted only to spatial processing, distinct from those employed in working memory tasks Logie Thus, while rotation does seem to engage working memory, it also seems to require processes distinct to visual imagery, and determining the relative contributions of these forms of processing to the task is difficult.
Similarly, although autobiographical memory, as measured by long-term retrospective recollection of one's life, is presented separately in this review, autobiographical tasks certainly draw on episodic memory, along with semantic information. Likewise, both autobiographical memory and episodic memory, measured in the short term, likely involve substantial verbalization. Many of the tasks classified as verbal memory in this review, particularly word list recall, can also be understood as episodic, as these abilities are likely tightly intertwined. The organization of this work, therefore, is not intended as taxonomy of memory processes. Indeed, no complete taxonomy of this sort is agreed upon in the field.
Rather than organizing the sections of this paper by theoretical memory categories, we have divided it by specific memory tasks, in the hope that this will facilitate ease of reference. Each of the sections of this review represents a distinct literature, with characteristic methods and tasks used to measure performance. It is hoped that this approach will allow researchers in each of these fields to easily find what is known about sex differences for the particular measures of memory that they study. We will attempt to some degree to separate the contributions of different categories of memory to different tasks, and to establish which tasks draw on common or distinct faculties.
However, when we argue that two sex differences are distinct, we intend only to imply that these memory tasks should be treated as separate insofar as they are influenced by sex. For example, given consistent evidence of female advantages on verbal tasks, we suggest that a common sex difference contributes to sex differences in performance on verbal recall tasks, episodic, and object memory tasks.
Recognition of sex manages in memory based ni thereafter, when the Officials psychologist Havelock Hope published what is very the first used-scale original of biological and managing sex specialists. Urology ; Duly, when we offer that two sex receipts are distinct, we know only to have that these memory cards should be treated as possible insofar as they are ran by sex.
We remain agnostic, however, as to what extent the processing underlying these tasks may be neurally or functionally separated. In most of the studies to be described, the researchers did not have access to information on gender, but instead assumed that this variable matched the more observable data that they did have, regarding biological sex. However, biological sex and gender are not always aligned. Thus, we restrict our discussion to the observable variable, and make no assumptions regarding gender. Our discussion begins with a brief historical perspective, followed by a review of some relevant neurobiological sex differences in brain regions and processes known to be involved in learning and memory.
We next consider sex differences in two domains in which they have been most commonly observed—spatial and verbal memory—with particular attention to recent experiments showing telling exceptions to the commonly accepted pattern seen in studies on this topic. Next, we will review the evidence for sex differences in autobiographical memory, with a particular interest in the notion that these differences represent a more general sex difference in episodic memory. Next, we will consider the influence of sex on the modulation of memory by emotional arousal and stress.
We will argue that sex differences may be particularly evident in the study of emotional memory, in part because of newly discovered interactions between stress and sex hormones in memory. Finally, we will briefly address some intriguing new directions that the field of sex differences is taking, driven by new methodologies. Previous Section Next Section Some historical perspective The publication in of Hermann Ebbinghaus' famous investigation of his own memory is generally taken as the start of modern memory investigations. Recognition of sex differences in memory followed shortly thereafter, when the British psychologist Havelock Ellis published what is considered the first large-scale study of biological and psychological sex differences.
Many investigations followed. And as might be expected from the study of any two presumably overlapping yet offset populations in which many variables, known and unknown, will influence experimental findings, the literature often appeared confusing, with some studies reporting sex differences in a particular condition, others reporting none. By the time of Maccoby and Jacklin's landmark summary of sex differences on the psychological level, interest in the topic appears to have been waning, in part because sex differences in brain and behavior were considered anathema by the political zeitgeist of the time Eagly et al. Renewed interest today in the issue of sex influences in memory appears driven heavily by neurobiological investigations, which have identified numerous sex differences in brain related to memory.
In particular, neuroimaging has revealed differing neural networks underlying task performance between the sexes, both for tasks where performance differs and where performance is equivalent Grabowski et al. Interestingly, one can find sex effects in some early studies of the neurobiology of memory, although these seem by and large to have been forgotten. For example, McGaugh and Thomson investigated the effects of a stimulant strychnine on foot shock-motivated maze learning in male and female rats. Indeed, it is only much more recently that studies of memory in both male and female animals appear to be gradually returning.
Previous Section Next Section Some neurobiological sex differences relevant to learning and memory Neurobiological sex differences in brain regions implicated in learning and memory exist at multiple levels of analysis, from gross neuroanatomy to circuit properties to the molecular mechanisms underlying them.
Before focusing on sex differences explicitly tied to memory, we will first briefly describe some of these neurobiological sex differences through which these differences could potentially be mediated. Neuroanatomy Multiple studies report larger whole brain volumes in men than women Peters ; Allen et jn. The volume of numerous womn structures, including many well known to be involved in learning and memory have also been found to differ significantly between the sexes. Both post-mortem and imaging studies have found that relative to brain size, women have larger volumes in the hippocampus Filipek et al. In contrast, the relative volumes of the amygdala Giedd et al.
Interestingly, an analysis of numerous brain structures showing sexual dimorphism indicates that the magnitude of sex differences in the size of human brain structures correlates with the degree to which the regions express sex steroid receptors during development, as inferred from animal studies Goldstein et al. Neurochemistry In addition to morphological differences, significant sex differences exist in the metabolism of multiple neurotransmitters known to play an important role in cognition. Several studies show that the availability of dopamine transporters, which regulate synaptic dopamine levels, is significantly greater in women than in men Lavalaye et al.
Similarly, in the striatum, a structure well known to be involved in habit learning, female presynaptic dopamine levels exceed those of age-matched males Laakso et al.
Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the globus pallidus is also larger in women Riccardi et al. Plasma serotonin levels are also higher in women than in men Ortiz et al. These global differences reflect the aggregate effect of numerous local neurochemical sex differences. The male advantage in 5-HT2 receptors seems to derive particularly from frontal and cingulate cortices Biver et al. Microdialysis in rodents indicates that extracellular levels of both serotonin and dopamine in the amygdala are elevated in males relative to females, although females show a significantly larger serotonin response to stress Mitsushima et al. While sex differences in dopamine seem to be insensitive to menstrual position, serotonergic sex differences do seem to be influenced by ovarian hormones.
Exogenous sex hormone replacement significantly enhances 5-HT2a binding throughout the cortex Moses et al. Thus, an important limitation in this study is the way we assessed sexual satisfaction. Future studies must be developed with focus on a suitable evaluation of sexual satisfaction, generating valid and reliable instruments This research was a cross-sectional study. Therefore, future longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm these findings. A third limitation is related to health measures.
Previous studies indicate that menopausal symptoms predicted variance in different aspects of sexual satisfaction Considering that this is a population with different health problems, future studies should analyze the effects of these variables on the sexual life satisfaction of the couple. Another limitation was the difficulty of locating the selected subjects, due to the large number of unknown addresses, despite the exclusion of the beneficiaries who lived outside the sector, and the complexity of simultaneously finding both members of the couple at home, which at times required more than one visit for an interview, depending on the availability of both individuals.
Finally, knowledge about the sexual satisfaction of women and men during the climacteric stage from an individual and couples perspective will provide tools that could help to remove stereotypes and strengthen the relationship between couples and mutual self-care, with important implications for the health of the couple and the family There is evidence that the greater the satisfaction reported by a couple in their sexual relationships, the smoother their adaptation is to the changes that occur during middle age, leading to better reported health and health behavior Moreover, the present study may provide new information about Chilean couples in the climacteric stage in relation to self-reported sexual satisfaction and perceived satisfaction in couples.
Furthermore, the difference in partners' perceptions is also revealed; further research will have to explain and elucidate the causes and effects of the reported findings. Acknowledgments Doctoral Thesis Grants Research: References 1. The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press; Haavio-Manila E, Kontula O. Correlates of increased sexual satisfaction. Arch Sex Behav ; Satisfaction in the sex life of a general population sample. J Sex Marital Ther ; Yela C.
Predictors of and factors related to loving and sexual satisfaction for men and women. Eur Rev Appl Psychol ; Sex in Australia: Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile. Associations among attachment, sexuality, and marital satisfaction in adult Chilean couples: Further Validation of the interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction. Sexual practices and sexual satisfaction: Importance of and satisfaction with sex among men and women worldwide: J Sex Med ; 5: Factors affecting sexuality in older Australian women: Climacteric ; 9: Correlates of sexual satisfaction among sexually active postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study.
J Gen Intern Med ; More than sexual function: J Sex Med ; 7: Sexual activities, sexual and life satisfaction, and successful aging in women. Physical women, emotional men: Conceptual and theoretical issues in studying sexuality in close relationships. The handbook of sexuality in close relationships. Erlbaum; Butzer B, Campbell L. Adult attachment, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction: A study of married couples. Pers Relatsh ; Sexual satisfaction among middle-aged couples: Maturitas ; 6: Relationships among sexual satisfaction, marital quality, and marital instability at midlife.
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J Fam Psychol ; Sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in midlife and older couples in five countries. Sexual satisfaction and marital well-being in the? J Soc Pers Relat ; Byers ES. Relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction: J Sex Res ; Yucel D, Gassanov MA. Exploring actor and partner correlates of sexual satisfaction among married couples. Soc Sci Res ; Association of sexual problems with social, psychological and physical problems in men and women: J Epidemiol Community Health ; J Int Med Res ; The relative effects of hormones and relationship factors on sexual function of women through the natural menopausal transition. Fertil Steril ; Quality of sexual life and menopause.
Womens Health ; 5: Health Qual Life Outcomes ; Impaired quality of life among middle aged women: Maturitas ; Assessment of quality of life using the Menopause Rating Scale in women aged 40 to 59 years.