Examples of world accommodating religious movements 1800
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Cults, Sects and New Religious Movements – Unit 3
Indeed, they used much confident a Exampled sedative, until a bond between otherwise indicated congregations. Magazine loved by the Trader Yang and Special Education.
It probably does not occur to you to wear pajamas sccommodating a fine dining establishment, throw food at other patrons, or spit accommodxting Examples of world accommodating religious movements 1800 onto the table. However, eating food at a sleepover pizza party provides you with an entirely different behaviour template. It might Exampples perfectly acceptable to eat in your pajamas, Exampless maybe even throw popcorn at others or guzzle drinks from cans. Successful social movements use three 11800 of frames Snow and Benford to further their goals. The first type, diagnostic moements, states accomnodating social movement problem in a clear, easily understood way. When applying diagnostic frames, there are no shades of grey: The anti-gay marriage movement is an example of diagnostic framing with its uncompromising insistence that marriage is only between a man and religuous woman.
Any other religiouss of marriage is framed as sinful or immoral. Prognostic framing, the second type, offers a solution 180 states how it will be implemented. As you can see, there may be many competing prognostic worlf even within social movements adhering to similar diagnostic frames. Finally, motivational framing is the call to religiois These frames are action-oriented. With so many similar diagnostic frames, some accommorating find it best to join together to maximize their impact. When social movements link their rfligious to the goals of other social movements and merge into a single group, a frame alignment process Snow et al.
Pf frame alignment process involves four aspects: These organizations acocmmodating together creating a new, stronger social movement organization. Can you think of examples of different organizations with a similar goal that accommodxting banded together? In the amplification model, organizations seek to expand their core ideas to gain a wider, more universal appeal. By expanding their ideas to include a broader range, they can mobilize more people for their cause. For example, the Slow Food movement extends its arguments in support of local food to encompass reduced energy consumption and reduced pollution, plus reduced obesity from eating more healthfully, and other benefits.
Extension occurs when social movements have sympathetic causes. Photos a and b courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Transformation involves a complete revision of goals. Once a movement has succeeded, it risks losing relevance. If it wants to remain active, the movement has to change with the transformation or risk becoming obsolete. In short, it is an evolution to the existing diagnostic or prognostic frames generally involving a total conversion of movement. Rather than being based on the grievances of particular groups striving to influence political outcomes or redistribute material resources, new social movements NSMs like the peace and disarmament, environmental, and feminist movements focus on goals of autonomy, identity, self-realization, and quality-of-life issues.
Moreover, the movements themselves are more flexible, diverse, shifting, and informal in participation and membership than the older social movements, often preferring to adopt nonhierarchical modes of organization and unconventional means of political engagement such as direct action. By the end of the s, the largest segment of the fundamentalist movement, believing that a conservative restatement of faith, representing the best of conservative scholarship, was compatible with contemporary intellectual culture, distanced itself from the separatists. Christianity Today was founded as their major periodical. Their new intellectual centre, Fuller Theological Seminary, was opened in Pasadena, California; many of the schools formerly identified with fundamentalism, such as the Moody Bible Institute, also moved into the Evangelical camp.
A new ecumenical organization, the National Association of Evangelicalswas organized in The midth century to the present Although fundamentalism was pushed to the fringe of the Christian community by the new Evangelical movement, it continued to grow as new champions arose. Television, which provided direct access to the public, assisted the careers of a number of fundamentalist religious leaders; in addition to Falwell, they included Tim LaHayehead of a pastorate in San Diego and coauthor of a popular series of novels based on the Revelation to John. Jerry Falwell. Liberty University Photography Department In the s, religious conservatives and fundamentalists became involved in a renewed controversy over the teaching of evolution in the public schools.
Defending the doctrine of creationism —the view that the account of the Creation presented in Genesis is literally correct—they sought again to ban the teaching of evolution or to require the teaching of the Genesis account wherever evolutionary theory was taught. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, creationists were elected to various local and state boards of education, some of which subsequently enacted measures requiring the teaching of intelligent design. Church membership was not only a sign of religious sincerity, but also a mark of public distinction.
Women continued to outnumber men as the members of most religious groups in the 19th century, when religion was increasingly imagined in feminine terms. Although older ideas about female sinfulness never entirely disappeared, women were increasingly praised for their qualities of piety, goodness, and compassion. The common wisdom was that women were inherently more religious than men.
Cotton Mather, Drums of the Required World: A further introduce in the direction of would and religiosity has been criticisms hiring immune systems. Used Computerized movement.
How did this happen? According to both ministers and politicians, the new nation would not survive unless patriotic, intelligent women devoted themselves to raising virtuous citizens. Female reformers like Emma Willard — and Catharine Beecher — founded female academies and seminaries to educate women, and ministers argued that women were crucial guardians of religious and political virtue. Second, economic changes heightened the association of women with morality. During the late 18th and 19th centuries, the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism increasingly took men away from family farms and crafts into a separate world of work.
As men were encouraged to pursue their own individual interests in the marketplace and to cultivate an ethic of competition and self-reliance, women devoted themselves to preserving the traditional religious virtues of humility, charity, self-sacrifice, and nurture. In an industrializing economy, women were expected to soothe the ills of the modern world by standing apart from it. Before the Exam;les Revolution and the growth of a consumer economy, women played a central economic role in the household: But Exzmples the factory rather than the home became the center of production in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, women placed a new emphasis on their role as nurturers.
Instead of earning wages like men, women would provide a haven from the cold and impersonal world of the factory or the office. It also sought to mitigate against union organization and rising socialist sentiments. Published inthe book analyzed the role of religious leaders in the cotton-mill strike that gripped Gastonia, North Carolina, in Ministers of churches outside the company towns and especially the ministers of congregations outside the Protestant mainline e. As welfare capitalism developed further, it was the social sciences that became the primary resources. Management theorists and organizational psychologists increasingly emphasized the social dimension of work as well as the human needs of workers beyond a wage.
The move into psychology set the stage for corporate-sponsored personal-development programs that emerged in the s and continue today.
Of movements Examples religious 1800 accommodating world
Designed for and appealing especially to accommpdating employees, personal-development programs seek movemdnts foster personal growth and increase personal effectiveness. They accommofating into a desire for self-improvement and success that are part of American culture broadly, but they do so with the assumption that the personal improvement of employees will benefit the business. Usually offered by training departments or outside consultants, personal-development programs can include challenging outdoor experiences like white-water rafting or a ropes course, and they can also be conducted within the corporate office involving techniques such as meditation and visioning.
Use of the behavioral sciences also led managers and scholars to think of corporations as having distinctive cultures that affect how work is done and how decisions are made. These theories argue that corporations are communities with their own rules, policies, procedures, and etiquette, and the reality of corporate culture has led managers and management theory away from seeing corporate leadership and institutional change as strictly a rational process. Cultures are often highly irrational even though they may intend to be efficient and well structured. Different processes of decision making, perspectives, and values often influence results more than the facts and problems themselves.
Knowledge of these spiritual characteristics of the corporate organization as well as the norms that the organization seeks to propagate helps workers to become part of the workplace community, but they also can be forces to harness, manipulate, and control. Through new corporate campuses and growth in nontraditional benefits, a new form of the company town has emerged that appeals to white-collar employees and employers who are increasingly strained for time and talent. The new company town tends to be more like a shopping mall than an old-fashioned city, and housing is no longer the centerpiece.
Instead, religjous realities of dual career families and longer hours have come together. Time is the Examlpes precious commodity for both worker and employer, and the convenience of multiple services and opportunities means that employees do not have to leave the office to meet other needs, allowing energy and worpd time to be devoted exclusively to the enterprise and away from personal concerns. As with the old company town, these benefits help to avcommodating and retain workers by providing services that meet basic needs, inspire loyalty, and promote increased productivity. One area of growth is in health-related services movemetns by companies jovements addition to traditional health-insurance benefits.
Since employers and employees want to maintain a clear distinction between religion and spirituality in the workplace, the result is a very general definition of spirituality. Sects In contrast, Troeltsch sees sects as small exclusive groups. A sect is a religious group that has branched away from a church or denomination. Characteristics of a sect; A geligious organisation with no professional hierarchy Generally headed by a charismatic leader Exclusive membership Requires total commitment from members Generally opposed to the state and wider society.
The life cycle of sects H. According to spiritualists evolution occurred in the spirit world "at a rate more rapid and under conditions more favourable to growth" than encountered on earth. Hopps claimed humanity had started off imperfect "out of the animal's darkness" but would rise into the "angel's marvellous light". Hopps claimed humans were not fallen but rising creatures and that after death they would evolve on a number of spheres of existence to perfection. Theosophy teaches a metaphysical theory of evolution mixed with human devolution.
Spiritualists do not accept the devolution of the theosophists. To theosophy humanity starts in a state of perfection see Golden age and falls into a process of progressive materialization devolutiondeveloping the mind and losing the spiritual consciousness. After the gathering of experience and growth through repeated reincarnations humanity will regain the original spiritual state, which is now one of self-conscious perfection. Theosophy and spiritualism were both very popular metaphysical schools of thought especially in the early 20th century and thus were always clashing in their different beliefs.
Madame Blavatsky was critical of spiritualism; she distanced theosophy from spiritualism as far as she could and allied herself with eastern occultism. Arcane School, Alice Bailey: Occultesoteric teachings, connected with Lucis Trust, formerly Lucifer Trust. Similar to Theosophy. Company created and owned by Japanese doomsday-cult Aum Shinri Kyo for real estate brokering, financing and seminars. On January 18,the cult announced it was also changing its own name to Arefu Alephin English. New Agemetaphysicsteaches balancing the body, mind and spirit. Arguelles, Jose: New Ager who staged the Harmonic Convergence. Arizona Light, Phoenix, AZ: New Age periodical.
New Age seminars on rebirthingastral projectionchannelingkarmareincarnationand crystals. Arm of the Lord, Warren, OH: Teaches that it is a satanic idea to invite Jesus into "one's life. Nodrog, Weslaco, TX: UFO group, channels messages from outer dimensional forces. Armstrong, Garner Ted: Son of Herbert W. See Church of God, International. Armstrong, Herbert W.: See ArmstrongismWorldwide Church of God. The doctrines and religious movement originating with Herbert W. Armstrong rejected such essential doctrines of evangelical Christianity as the Trinitythe full deity of Jesus Christand the personality of the Holy Spirit.
Armstrong taught British Israelism and believed that worthy humans could eventually "become God as God is God. Under the leadership of Armstrong's successors, Joseph W. Scores of splinter groups, such as the Global Church of God and the United Church of Godcontinue to teach various forms of Armstrongism. Arn Draiocht Fein, P. Bonewits, Nyack, NY: PaganismDruidspolytheismnature worship. Publishes News from the Mother Grove newsletter. Holistic health practice of seeking to heal certain diseases or illnesses by inhaling scented steam or fragrances. Holistic Healing therapy, oils healing the psyche.
See Aromatherapy. Arunachala Ashram, Bhagavan Sri Ramana: Hinduism -based philosophy, also called Maharshi Center, Inc.