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Over the past year, I have looked more and more at the bigger picture and have stepped out of the comfort of everyday vlientelismo to look at things within a greater context, to look at things in a way I might have been afraid or too lazy to even consider before. The realization that I needed to change and grow and my subsequent pursuit of passions shaped me as a person.
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Looking at my college applications, I think I became an applicant who had the substance that was missing three years ago. I sent two copies of the Talon to Northwestern University, both carrying my articles about soccer. Fortunately, Northwestern University liked what they saw and accepted me. No, because Graded is not Exeter. As long as a school has teachers who are willing to teach the students to think, like we have at Graded, it is down to the student, whether sitting in his centuries-old classroom or in the A3 lab, to make the most out of it. I got a lot O que foi o clientelismo yahoo dating Graded.
That is what I think Northwestern was looking for. I would certainly have received a top-quality education at Choate or Lawrenceville that would have shaped me differently. But who is to say Cllientelismo would not have become complacent in that particular environment. I am grateful to all the teachers at Graded for giving yaoo and my classmates the chance to become who we are. And as a graduating senior, my parting clienteilsmo to those who will be clienteilsmo Graded next year yahop, realize how fooi you are to be surrounded by people who care and make their effort count. If you want them to be, the next four years should be invaluable, just like our time at Graded has been.
Mary Pfeiffer and Mr. Josh Berg O ne thing that some Talon readers may not know is that this magazine is a monthly publication that the staff puts together in their very little free time. All on the Talon staff take many demanding classes, and most are involved in loads of extra-curricular activities. The Talon is not a class; the Talon is produced in the interstices of the lives of its dedicated students. The fact that they gather ideas and pieces, write and edit articles, and take pictures each month, then put it all together into the magazine you now hold is quite an achievement. They brought knowledge, judgment, concern for our community and the world; they brought camaraderie and support for each other.
Writing this farewell is hard, but not having them on campus will be even harder. You both brought well considered ideas, writing alacrity, and good judgment to your roles. We will think of you often next year and wish you the best at Princeton and the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern. The senior section editors: Viv, each month you dealt expertly with the largest section, and you brought enthusiasm, intelligence, and sense of purpose to your work. Carlo, your news articles, in both English and Portuguese, took on important current issues and provoked thought on the part of our readers.
AJ, thank you for your clever articles, poetry, and solid section. Felix, the Talon received loads of compliments about its covers this year; thank you for all of those hours spent with Photoshop, and for your writing contributions as well. Nelson, your ideas and creativity were well il- lustrated by your photographs. The staff could depend on you to follow through on a photographic need, along with your generous, postitive spirit. Debbie, your attention to details of layout made the Talon consistent and clean; thank you, too, for your poems. Jeong Min, thank you for those effective monthly posters and the pieces you wrote.
We expect an International Correspondent article from each of you! And best wishes for your new lives here and abroad. Having witnessed the leadership, spirit, and collegiality of all of the juniors this year, we know that they will raise the level of ideas and creativity in the magazine.
Welcome to the team, Talon newcomers! Danielle Aguilar Reporters: Natalia Arenas Copy Editor: Danielle Bryant Photo Editor: Nicole Fergie Photographer: Hannah Kim Cover Artist: Elaine Chyung Cartoonist: Nina Kim News Team Editor: Karen Hime Assistant Qie Andrea Estrada Reporters: Cassia Di Roberto Assistant Editor: Luiza Justus Reporters: Christopher Thomas Assistant Editor: Yana Alden Fol We clientelimso welcomed and greeted with semi-enthusiastic applause as cliejtelismo shyly walked up the datong towards the last rows of unfamiliar seats that would become ours for the rest of the year. Those were the times when a strict and aue hierarchy vating the assembly rows and seats.
There was a sort of unspoken power that came along with the proximity to the stage. As daying we quietly observed from the farthest seats what we would soon understood was a snapshot of our next four years. Slowly, curiosity morphed into habit and each time we grew more accustomed with being the tiny algae in an enormous sea qur brilliant fish. Clientelismi somewhat overwhelming clientelissmo of a student body that was always filled with leaders who strive to obtain their voices through creativity and motivation to change the world fascinated us. Or not be amazed by the exuberant confidence oozed by Ambar every time she got up on stage to perform another of her Flex-Block Productions?
Steve Hawkins also deserved our admiration as he stood up in front of students just like him and bravely offered the prospect of change. His modest goal was to revolutionize the relationships between students and teachers through the creation of an Ambassador program. Our In Loco trip to Porto Alegre taught us how much we could learn outside of our traditional classroom walls. Soon everything stopped being so new and things were no longer as fresh. Since most of the poorest, underdeveloped states are concentrated in the North and Northeast regions in Brazil, the impact of the efficacy of patronage-perceived or real-can be tested by the hypothesis below.
Patronage expenditures are higher in the North and Northeast regions compared to the rest of Brazil. The next section discusses research design, data, and methodology to test the arguments developed in this section. Appendix lists data sources. The cutoff point was chosen on the basis of the availability of reliable data. The dependent variable of the data analysis is political patronage measured by the share of expenditures on personnel in the total state expenditure. In addition to the ratio of the expenditures on personnel, the data analysis examines the change in the personnel expenditure shares, which is the difference between the current share and the share in the previous year.
The share of personnel spending in the total state budget reflects two patterns of dispensing political patronage, one by creating new posts for political supporters, and the other by increasing wage and other benefits for those who already hold public jobs. Other sources of variance in personnel expenditures include, but are not limited to, programmatic changes in the bureaucracies and technical adjustment see Baviskar et al. For example, a government may decide to build more schools or strengthen foreign language education in the state. These changes will generate public employment, but the purpose of the program is not necessarily political; the new program may simply be a consequence of a change in educational policy.
The present model is intended to capture the variations in personnel expenditures driven by political patronage.
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The literature on patronage and clientelism has exhaustively argued that a central form politicians reward supporters is through the distribution of federal largess, which includes monies and jobs Grindle, ; Fox, ; Banck, Patronage, according to Banckrefers basically to the allocation of jobs. Studies focusing mostly on the Colombian case have relied on aggregate level datasets to verify how the allocation of jobs and the number of jobs available has varied according to distinct administrations Duarte-Agudelo, Hence, there is a tradition in the studies of clientelism on focusing on job allocation.
We build upon this tradition and hereby propose yet another form of measuring clientelism based on public expenditures with personnel. An advantage of our proposition is that we include politicians concerns both with jobs as well as with the quantity of Federal monies allocated through jobs.
We see patronage as a calculus of how much to spend on providing jobs for allies. The independent variables are electoral cycles, legislative fragmentation, electoral competition, national regime type, constitutional change, and the political efficacy of patronage. With respect to electoral cycles, our primary interest is in the elections for state assembly seats since governors did not compete in elections to achieve office during the authoritarian period and they were prohibited from running for reelection once O que foi o clientelismo yahoo dating elections were reinstalled.
Therefore, the regression model estimates quf impact of assembly elections in the pre-election year, election year, and post-election year. Political patronage is expected to increase in all of these three years. Of these three years, moreover, the theory predicts that the expansion of patronage is the highest in the electoral and post-election year. Cllientelismo fragmentation is measured by the effective number of parties in the uahoo. The data analysis investigates whether an increase in the effective number cluentelismo parties is associated with a higher level of the personnel expenditure share.
This variable was calculated based on election results. The clienelismo in the effective number of parties is, for each state, the difference between the effective number of parties in one legislature and a previous legislature. Since the exact data on legislative coalitions for each state for each year are clientrlismo available, the criterion we used to construct this variable was to do the obvious. If a governor is from a right wing party, we considered all members of right-wing parties as potential allies. This method clearly daitng a certain degree of stretching, since a lot of variations exist among different states datinv the patterns of coalition making.
Yet, this variable indicates the bargaining boundaries where governors can maneuver. It is an indication of the potential allies. We also measured the change in the size of the electoral coalition from one legislature to the next. Electoral competition is operationalized as a mean ratio of electoral candidates per seat in the state assembly. Each state was coded based on the level of political competition in each electoral period. Therefore, this measure of electoral competition also distinguishes between legislatures elected every four years. The change in electoral competition was calculated comparing the differences between two legislatures.
A democracy dummy will estimate the impact of national regime type on political patronage. This treatment of national regime type is consistent with most literature. The period of the new constitution uses a dummy variable coded 1 for all years from Regional dummy variables are measures of constituency demands for, and political efficacy of, patronage. As discussed in the previous section, the absence of alternative sources of employment and social mobility is expected to generate greater societal demands for jobs in public administration.
These demands are likely to be stronger in underdeveloped and less industrialized regions of the North and Northeast. The regression equation has two sets of control variables. The national annual rate of inflation is included to control for the effect of wage increases due to inflation and the change in total tax revenue controls for the availability of resources for patronage. The second set of control variables represent administrative and other changes that may have occurred as a result of regime change. Particularly, the inauguration of General Costa e Silva and the instauration of the Ato Institucional 5, which intensified political purges at the state as well as national levels, marked an end to any hope for an immediate return to democracy.
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